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Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology—A Narrative Review of Current Status

Updated: May 28, 2023


Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an integral part of clinical decision support systems (CDSS), offering methods to approximate human reasoning and computationally infer decisions. Such methods are generally based on medical knowledge, either directly encoded with rules or automatically extracted from medical data using machine learning (ML). ML techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs), are based on mathematical models with parameters that can be optimally tuned using appropriate algorithms. The ever-increasing computational capacity of today’s computer systems enables more complex ML systems with millions of parameters, bringing AI closer to human intelligence. With this objective, the term deep learning (DL) has been introduced to characterize ML based on deep ANN (DNN) architectures with multiple layers of artificial neurons. Despite all of these promises, the impact of AI in current clinical practice is still limited. However, this could change shortly, as the significantly increased papers in AI, machine learning and deep learning in cardiology show. We highlight the significant achievements of recent years in nearly all areas of cardiology and underscore the mounting evidence suggesting how AI will take a central stage in the field.

Keywords: artificial intelligence; cardiology; heart failure; arrythmias; voice technology; cardiac imaging





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