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Artificial intelligence in healthcare Applications, risks, and ethical and societal impacts

European Parliament Report

In recent years, the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine and

healthcare has been praised for the great promise it offers, but has

also been at the centre of heated controversy. This study offers an

overview of how AI can benefit future healthcare, in particular

increasing the efficiency of clinicians, improving medical diagnosis

and treatment, and optimising the allocation of human and

technical resources.

The report identifies and clarifies the main clinical, social and ethical

risks posed by AI in healthcare, more specifically: potential errors and

patient harm; risk of bias and increased health inequalities; lack of

transparency and trust; and vulnerability to hacking and data privacy


The study proposes mitigation measures and policy options to

minimise these risks and maximise the benefits of medical AI,

including multi-stakeholder engagement through the AI production

lifetime, increased transparency and traceability, in-depth clinical

validation of AI tools, and AI training and education for both

clinicians and citizens.


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