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Enhancing self-management in type 1 diabetes with wearables and deep learning

Abstract

People living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) require lifelong self-management to maintain glucose levels in a safe range. Failure to do so can lead to adverse glycemic events with short and long-term complications. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is widely used in T1D self-management for real-time glucose measurements, while smartphone apps are adopted as basic electronic diaries, data visualization tools, and simple decision support tools for insulin dosing. Applying a mixed effects logistic regression analysis to the outcomes of a six-week longitudinal study in 12 T1D adults using CGM and a clinically validated wearable sensor wristband (NCT ID: NCT03643692), we identified several significant associations between physiological measurements and hypo- and hyperglycemic events measured an hour later. We proceeded to develop a new smartphone-based platform, ARISES (Adaptive, Real-time, and Intelligent System to Enhance Self-care), with an embedded deep learning algorithm utilizing multi-modal data from CGM, daily entries of meal and bolus insulin, and the sensor wristband to predict glucose levels and hypo- and hyperglycemia. For a 60-minute prediction horizon, the proposed algorithm achieved the average root mean square error (RMSE) of 35.28 ± 5.77 mg/dL with the Matthews correlation coefficients for detecting hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia of 0.56 ± 0.07 and 0.70 ± 0.05, respectively. The use of wristband data significantly reduced the RMSE by 2.25 mg/dL (p < 0.01). The well-trained model is implemented on the ARISES app to provide real-time decision support. These results indicate that the ARISES has great potential to mitigate the risk of severe complications and enhance self-management for people with T1D



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